Communication is necessity, interaction, participation and cancellation of distance. It is a process of transmission that requires a subject wishing to share information and one or more others able to receive it.
The history of communication through the centuries has gone through different stages, each distinguished by a particular cultural revolution making information progressively faster and more accessible. The important aspect of this development is that no new tool has ever replaced the preceding ones; every innovation in the communication sector has always been added to the existing media, improving its effectiveness and filling its gaps. So writing did not dislodge oral culture, printing did not put an end to handwriting and the digital world has not replaced printed newspapers.
Modern communication was born with orality. Men began to speak to one another, developing primordial forms of language and refining them with evolution, stimulated by the need to establish relationships and pass on information. In this first stage man entrusted the word with handing down his story, and liturgy, proverbs and rhyme were used to facilitate memory. The shift from the personal communicative channel to one not requiring a direct relationship between physical persons took place with the advent of written, or rather handwritten, communication, marking the move from prehistory to history. Memory was engraved onto clay tablets, copied onto papyrus, parchment and illuminated codices to be handed down in time.
In 1455 the first printed Bible, produced by Gutenberg using typographical printing with moveable type, marked the decisive moment in the spread and reproducibility of culture. This technique, which had been known in Asia since the 13th century but had had no previous correspondence in Europe, considerably broadened the range of communication, allowing the large scale production and circulation of a potentially unlimited number of copies of a single text, all identical and produced at much faster times and lower costs. The Gutenberg revolution increased the number of readers, giving rise to the slow but inexorable democratisation of knowledge, which over the centuries has seen the establishment of modern journalism, the creation of daily papers, the development of publishing that is more and more stratified in content and form, the design of faster, more precise printing techniques, through to the invention of the digital book in our own time, the last frontier of the transmission and acceleration of culture.
The confines have been broken down, technology offers an increasingly wider range of receivers the chance of being informed. Communication has become more and more agile, fast and managable, but also complex and rich in subjects and content.
The 19th century saw the last of the great revolutions: the electronic one. It began with the invention of the telegraph by Samuel Morse, a new technological development that led in just a little more than a century to the birth of radio, television, cinema and finally the web. Distance is no longer an obstacle to communication. Attention is progressively moving from the verbal to the visual channel, with content being more and more subject to the power of the image; the possibilties of ‘seeing’ are expanding, information reaches every house, every receiver is given increasing power and responsibility of choice in a more and more infinite sphere of opportunities. It is he himself who seeks what he needs, drawing suggestions and ideas from communication channels.
Even photography, invented as a means of objectively reproducing reality, goes beyond the limits between the existing and the imagined in the digital era and shows that there is no limit to the creative power of the imagination, because every image, if it cannot be captured outside, can be imagined and then reproduced.
The web represents the apex of this whole process, a galaxy of infinite, universally accessible messages, able to cover almost the entire human perceptive spectrum. It is a multiform space that is the field studied by web marketing, which uses the internet to analyse the market, study its dynamics and weave new commercial relationships. The effective publication of a project, its optimisation, the creation of a suitable, well positioned space and promotion are the necessary strategies for controlling the web channel and attracting interested visitors. Communicating today means using intersecting tools, the result of 6.000 years of the history of communication; it means taking part in a vast, expanded and constantly changing system, knowing how to give voice to complex messages that can convey content through the effective use of multimedia and at the same time attract the attention of the receiver, arousing his curiosity and directing his choices.